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Friday, April 17, 2020

Blood Transfusion

Blood Transfusion in small animals
Blood Transfusion
It is a process of transferring blood from one
homogeneous individual to an other.The important is to transfusing blood in inter species for example dog to dog,cats to cats.
.Factors
Type of anemia
Blood group
Blood parameters like pcv,hemoglobin etc
.Indications
PCV dog normal 35-40 %
Hemoglobin 13% normal 
If dog has PCV less then 15 % then blood transfusion is required 
in case of cats 
Normal PCV 20-25 or 30%
Hb normal 
If PCV 12% or less or Hb 4g/dl of blood or less
Some other clinical conditions in which blood transfusion is required
like Anemia,it may be due to any reason.There may be a bleeding disorder.There may be Thrombocytopenia or coagylopathy or there may be a poisonous case like Warfarin is anti cogaulent
Blood Transfusion
Blood groups:
13 known blood groups 
DEA: dog erythrocyte antigen system 1.1 1.2 3 4 5 6 7&8
new blood group added as
Dal:dalmatians 1.1 1.2&7 most antigenic 
Cats blood group type
A,B,AB,Mik
Type A is most common
Mik is rare 
Type B:anti A antibodies  due to which fatal transfusion reaction
Allo antibodies:immune antibodies produced following exposure to foreign RBCs
In case of dogs there are no preformed Allo-antibodies,Dog take 5-7 days for producing it.
In case of cats there are preformed Allo-antibodies 
Blood Transfusion

.Procedure for RBCs:
Collect the blood in a EDTA vial EDTA is anticoagulant then centrifuge at 100 rpm for 5 minutes,RBCs settle down plasma on upper side take out plasma with pippet then add normal saline then again centrifuge at 100 rpm then remove normal saline with the help of pippet repeat this step for 3 times.Then take 2-5% RBCs suspension
Take blood in simple vial
let it clot
Extract plasma,for major cross match serum of recipients and RBCs of donor after mix serum and RBCs,incubate for 15 min at room temperature ,again centrifuge for 15 min then see either heamolysis or coagulation then blood is in compatible.
Blood Transfusion

.Selection of ideal donor
Dogs:
Healthy 1 year
25kg weight
PCV>25%
Cats:
1-7 year old 
>10 pounds
PCV>35%
Hb>11%
Formula to calculate blood transfusion amount:
To raise 1% PCV 2.2ml/kg in case donor have PCV 40 % in dogs.
in case of cat PCV 30%
For example if one dog have 15 % PCV we need to raise to 30% weight 15 kg of recipient 2.2 ml/kg blood need 
2.2 multiply by weight multiply by how much to raise
Second formula:
Amount of donor whole blood=Body weight recipient in kg multiply by recipient volume constant in dogs 90 ml or in cats 66 ml multiply desired PCV minus PCV o recipient divided by PCV of donor .

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