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Wednesday, April 1, 2020



Question:what is meant by castration?
Castration is either removal or destruction of gonads in case of male.
If we have to castrated in horses,donkey,male bull,dogs etc
Castration has two types 
  1. Open Castration<open is further divided into two
  • Open Covered (Prefers in  Horses)
  • Open un-Covered(Prefers in Ruminants large + small)
Normally in field or Operation theater open uncovered in horses, but in inguinal hernia or scrotal hernia we do Open Covered Castration.
we do open castration.There are two main methods of doing castration one is in standing position other one is in lateral Recumbency

  1. Standing Castration<we first need to anesthetized the animal for this purpose we do general anesthesia or local anesthesia but we prefer local Anesthesia because it is more safe for the case of local anesthesia we use Lignocaine 2% so afterwards we have to inject 10ml of local anesthesia in scrotum 10ml into Testis and 10 ml in spermatic cord.Restraining of animal is important for your safety we need to apply Hobbles so the horse can not kick.In standing position you have to stand in left side and make sure you are in-contact with flank region of horse.Then you have to incise parallel to the Median Reffi.if you incise to lateral aspects parallel to the median Reffi  then you will able to expose the testis covered in Tunic.If you incise this Tunic then you will expose the testicle as well as a-vascular parts
    Standing Position
The main difference between Open Covered or Open un-Covered Castration is the incise of Tunic or Not
.Open Covered                                    .Open Un-Covered
Incise the Tunic                                   Expose the vascular or a-                                                                      vascular part
In open un-covered after incising the tunic you will expose the vascular or a-vascular part then you have to decided to use Emasculator or ligatures or you can use both.For using Emasculator you must have to perform Nut to NUT Method<There is a nut on Emasculator at one side and you can also called testis as have to make nut toward testis this is called nut to nut method.You need to apply minimum 30 seconds upto 1 minute.After applying Emasculator you can also ligate or transfix the Cord.Afterwards you also ligate the non vascular part afterward you close the incision or leave it open.If you are Performing aseptic surgery you can close your incision you have to make a drainage tract.
If you doing field surgery you can always leave the incision open.You have to pack the inguinal area this will help you to stop minor bleeding as well as it will act as drainage tract.
Possible Complications:
There may be Hemorrhage formation,Odema formation,Scirrhous Cord,Funiculitis or there are many other complications.
Hemorrhage Formation:you have to check for 30 minutes.If there is continue bleeding then you to ligate or transfix cord again.if bleeding is drop by drop then no need to worry.
Edema Formation:This is normal after castration.In result of inflammation there is vasodilation this will lead to large amount of fluid accumulate in scrotum for this purpose you have to make drainage tract or minimized the inflammation.To undermine the inflamation Cold water therapy administer ancids like afterward you have to walk the horse thrice a day for at-least 10 minutes
Scirrhous Cord:Chronic infection of spermatic cord stump typically cause by staphylococcus species costridial species etc.It will appear after some time.Signs will appear as Septicemia have to find cause of Septicemia you have to palpate a large firm stump.Never apply ligature in it.Ligature will form Nidus formation. 
Evisceration:Either of Omentum or Intestines.If there is evisceration of omentum then no need to worry you just have to ligate the eviscerated part or apply sutures.
In case of Intestine you have to check the viability you just wash with normal saline then push back into the body afterwards apply suture in inguinal cannal.
In case in non-viable you have to perform Enterotomy pr end to end anastomosis. Give animal good antibiotics.
In case or Ruminants or small animal you have to perform closed castration you have to use Burdizzo Castrator so you have to palpate the cord and aply the burdizzo castrator on one cord for 30 seconds to 1 minute then on the other side.if apply both then there is no blood supply to scrotum.
Indications of Closed:
To avoid 
  1. unwanted bleeding.
  2. Docile the Animal.
  3. make meat Tender.
Damage to penis 
Hemorrhage formation
For some days animal taking less feed.

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