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Saturday, April 4, 2020

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
IBK is a highly contagious disease caused by a bacterium Moraxella bovis that can spread rapidly during the summer months.It is more commonly seen in young stock than adults
Transmission of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis :
Head and nuisance flies can act as mechanical vector for M.Bovis and just is risk factor.The pain associated with this condition is more intense in strong sunlight.
Most Eye lesions are selected for treatment on the basis of obvious tear staining of the face which becomes thicker and opaque,matting the lashes and hair of the face.There is marked pain when the eye is exposed to direct sunlight.
The eye lesions are very painful and disrupt grazing patterns causing poor performance and even weight loss.
lesions in both eyes cause temporary blindness and the affected animal tend to wander aimlessly about.
Clinical Signs of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis :
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
  • Tear staining of the face
  • Pus matting the lashes and hair of face 
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Corneal ulceration
  • Pain when the eye is exposed to direct sunlight
  • Spontaneous recovery may occur in mild cases three to five days after clinical signs are first observed and is complete two weeks later .In severe cases ulceration may progress to corneal perforation i-e rupture of eye.
Differential Diagnosis:
The main differential diagnosis include
Foreign bodies for Example Grass awns within the conjunctivitis sac,bovine iritis,IBR
Treatment of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis :
Prompt treatment is essential.Topical ophthalmic antibiotic cream containing amoxicillin is commonly used.
Antibiotic injection Example with penicillin or oxytetracycline into the conjunctiva around upper part of the globe can be very effective but is difficult to achieve in fractious cattle and requires good restraint.
Injection into the upper eyelid conjunctiva is commonly used but this technique will not give residual antibiotic level in the eye and relies on leakage onto the cornea from the injection.This technique has no advantage over injection into the muscle except for the lower antibiotic dose.
When subconjunctival or tropical treatment is not practical then a single dose of long acting oxytetracycline or florfenicol have been reported to be effective but more expensive
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis
In severe cases vets can suture the eyelids together under local anesthesia around the eyelids to block the nerve supply .The Suture must not contact the cornea and removed after two weeks.
Prevention and Control:
Outbreak of IBK may occur after the introduction of purchased stock therefore,whenever possible all new stock should be managed separately as one group away from the main herd.
Fly control using ear tags and pour on insecticides is never absolute and repeated treatments prove costly.Development of immunity following infection is variable
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

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