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Sunday, April 5, 2020

Infectious Canine Hepatitis

Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1
CAV-1 also causes diseases in wolves,coyotes,and bear and in foxes.
The viruses is spread in urine feaces,blood,saliva,nasal discharge of infected dog
Etiology:
ICH is caused by non enveloped DNA virus canine adenovirus-1,which is antigenic-ally related only to CAV-2
CAV-1 is resistance to lipid solvents such as ether.
It survives outside the host for weeks or months,but a 1-3% solution of sodium hypochlorite
Pathogensis:
Intial infection occurs in the tonsillar crypts and payer patches,followed by viremia and disseminated infection.
Vascular endothelial cell is the primary target,with hepatic and renal parenchyma,spleen and lungs becoming infected as well.
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Effected organs
Clinical Signs:
  • Signs vary from a slight fever to death
  • Mortality rate ranges from 10-30%  and is typically highest in very young dogs.
  • Concurrent parvo viral or distemper infection Worsens the prognosis.
  • incubation period is 4-5 days
  • The first sign is a fever of >104
  • If the fever is for short period then leukopenia is the only the sign
Clinical Findings:
  • Apathy
  • Anorexia
  • Thirst
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Serous Discharge
  • Vomiting
  • Intense hyperemia 
  • Enlarge tonsils,may be seen
  • also effect on liver
Treatment:
  1. The goals of therapy are to limit secondary bacterial invasion,support fluid balance,and control hemorrhagic tendencies.
  2. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenously administered balanced electrolyte solution with 5% dextrose supplementation are indicated
  3. Plasma or whole blood transfusion may be necessary in severely ill dog
  4. Dogs with corneal clouding should be protected against bright light.
Prevention:
vaccination
Maternal antibody from immune bitches interferes with active immunization.
Infectious Canine Hepatitis
Nobivac vaccine

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